Copyright shall mean an exclusive right for an Author or the recipient of the right to publish or reproduce his Work or to grant permission for said purposes, without decreasing the limits according to the prevailing laws and regulations.

Kind of works copyright protected

  • Literary works such as books, pamphlets, novels, poems, reports, advertisements, instruction manuals, newspaper articles, and even shopping lists and examination papers.
  • Dramatic works (that is, anything which is intended to be performed, for example screenplays, scripts. There is no need for a dramatic work to be expressed in writing, provided it is recorded in some material form).
  • Choreographic works
  • Musical compositions (any sound or music is capable of protection provided it is fixed in some form (e.g. transcribed or recorded).
  • Cinema topographic works (i.e. moving pictures): e.g. films, videotapes, commercials, television programs and video clips.
  • Artistic works, engravings, models, diagrams, maps, woodcuts such as drawings, paintings, architecture, sculptures and prints. the work does not have to be “good” art!.
  • Photographs
  • Illustrations, maps, diagrams and plans.
  • “Derivative works”, such as translations, adaptations and arrangements of music.

Under TRIPs, the following material must be protected :

  • Material which must be protected under the Berne Convention
  • Computer programs
  • Data bases
  • Performances (whether live, broadcast or recorded on phonograms)
  • Phonograms
  • Broadcasts (includes television and radio programs and coverage of live performances).

The Indonesian Copyright Act is quite similar. Article 12 (1) states the following works in the fields of science, art and literature can be protected, and the following :

  • books, computer program, pamphlets, typographical arrangements of published works, and all other written works (typographical arrangements are defined in the Elucidation of this sub section as “the artistic aspects or aesthetics of the layout of a written work” , for example the special format, colors, position of letters or any ornamentations contained in the work).
  • sermons, lectures, addresses and other spoken works.
  • visual aids made for educational and scientific purposes.
  • songs, including karawitan and phonograms.
  • dramatic works, dances (choreographic works), puppet shows, pantomimes
  • performances
  • broadcasting woks
  • all forms of art, such as paintings, drawings, engravings, calligraphy, carvings, sculptures, collages, handy-crafts, motifs, diagrams, sketches, and logos.
  • architecture
  • map
  • batik art
  • photography
  • cinematographic works (including films, documentaries, reports, etc)
  • translations, interpretations, adaptations, anthologies and databases. There are considered works in their own right (Article 12(2), but copyright in the original work remains.

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